Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. Indonesian land borders with Malaysia on Borneo island, with Papua New Guinea on the island of Papua and East Timor on the island of Timor. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.
Indonesian history influenced by many other nations. Indonesian archipelago became an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya kingdom in Palembang religion and trade relations with China and India. Hindu kingdoms and Buddhism has grown in the early centuries AD, followed by the traders who brought Islam, as well as various European powers fought one another to monopolize the spice trade in the Moluccas during the era of ocean exploration. Once under Dutch colonialism, Indonesia which was then called the Dutch East Indies declared its independence at the end of World War II. Indonesia subsequently received various obstacles, threats and challenges of natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.
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